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The fifth edition of AMIT Congress continues in the tradition to propose topics of great interest in infectious diseases, in particular focusing on the continuity of care which includes both hospital and community. Global and local epidemiological emergencies, in some cases dramatic, are caused by the widespread increase of bacterial strains with little or no sensitivity to antibiotics. The pathogenicity of the most important multidrug-resistant microorganisms and the consequent impact in clinical practice has a main role in the development of infections. Rational and effective models of infection control are important tools with which to face the spreading of the multidrug-resistant microorganisms in different health care settings. The antibiotic treatment optimization, in the era of widespread resistant microrganisms, is one of the main problems for the clinician. The lack of new molecules, in the pipeline, is a poor perspective for the near future. Common antibiotic therapeutic associations must therefore be reviewed. Patients must be treated with more than two antibiotics, sometimes at higher “off label” doses. The therapeutic drug monitoring by applying PK / PD is an increasingly important procedure which allows the clinician to evaluate the bioavailability and the activity of the antibiotics employed. Unfortunately, PK/PD is not always available in all laboratories. The associations of antibiotics may be really active against multi drug resistant micro-organisms but the clinician must carefully evaluate each case before taking a decision. The development of computerized programs of antibiotic sterwardship will better improve the clinician’s decision of treatment to avoid the insurgence of further resistances and better control the rise of costs. The rapid ongoing evolution of infection management and the antibiotic treatment schedules need a continuous updating of the scientific literature. For these reasons a lecture about the past year’s most noteworthy publications in bacterial infections was scheduled in the Congress programme. Following the philosophy of the Congress, other topics of main and current importance in infectious diseases have been considered and are given to the participants at the Congress by the international leading specialists. One of the selected topics: "the present and the future of infections" is currently very hot. This is of great impact both for clinicians and the overall population, especially in a period when not only bacterial but also viral outbreaks are spreading all over the world and particularly in Africa. During these outbreaks it is of utmost importance, in order to avoid unjustified panic in the population, to explain, through a simple and clear language, the real impact of an outbreak and how to reduce or control it. The infectious diseases specialist, being the most qualified expert on the subject, has this role. Scientific knowledge in infectious diseases is rapidly increasing. It is able to provide the clinician with sophisticated tools for rapid diagnosis and therapy. However, the clinician should not forget the baggage of experience gained from direct contact with patients. A close and positive relationship with the patient is the best strategy to face the great challenges of infections.

Marco Tinelli